Classical and quantum computers share many general components – power supply, data storage, RAM memory, motherboard, but they differ in the way the central processing unit (CPU) works.
A classical CPU is made from transistors, which is like an on/off switch. If it is on, then it’s like the number 1 or true. If it is off it’s like the number 0 or false. This is what binary means. A transitor represents a binary bit.
Quantum computers do not use binary bits, they use quantum bits or qubits. What is a Qubit? It is a bit in a superposition of 1 and 0. What does superposition mean? Quantum theory shows that quantum objects such as electrons, prior to measurement, are in multiple states at the same time. So something like the spin of an electron, which is a measurement of its intrinsic angular momentum, when measured is either up or down. When not measured, it is in both states of up and down. This is what superposition is.
- 0:00 – Quantum Computers
- 0:55 – Common computer components
- 2:51 – What is a Transistor?
- 3:20 – What is a qubit?
- 6:07 – Advantages of superpositions
- 6:40 – How does a quantum computer compute?
- 7:30 – Quantum algorithms
- 8:54 – What kinds of problems can Q computers solve?
- 10:32 – Why are quantum computers difficult to build?
- 11:50 – Is the universe a giant computer?